B.S. University of Kentucky, 2003
Ph.D. Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008
University of Illinois, postdoctoral researcher, 2008-2011
My research focuses on the synthesis and evaluation of materials for energy storage applications including electrolyte additives for overcharge protection in lithium-ion batteries and electroactive materials in non-aqueous redox flow batteries. We study the reactions of organic radical cations as synthetic intermediates and also to get an idea of what kinds of reactions occur in these oxidized states in battery environments.
Despite their prevalence in consumer electronics, which ranges from cell phones to laptops to electric vehicles, secondary Li-ion batteries need improvement in order to extend their lifetimes. Each time a Li-ion battery charges and discharges, the liquid electrolyte (often carbonate solvents with lithium salts) partially decomposes, contributing to the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer between the electrodes and electrolyte. The cause for decomposition is that the electrolyte solvents are unstable in the voltages of lithium ion battery operation, which are generally quite reducing. We are developing additives for protection during normal cycling and during battery overcharge, when the electrical potential one or more batteries in a series is raised beyond the end-of-charge potential of the cathode. Operating in this overcharge results in electrolyte oxidation and increased temperatures, which can lead battery failure.
In addition to the decrease in battery lifetime, this failure mechanism can be dangerous if batteries ignite, causing a cascade of thermal runaway events in neighboring batteries. Given the size of the batteries in electric and hybrid electric vehicles (about 200 kg), thermal runaway is a major safety concern due to the large amount of reactive material within one battery pack. We are therefore improving the stability and efficacy of electrolyte additives through structural modifications for steric protection of reactive groups and electronic modification through the introduction of electron donating or withdrawing substituents. Involvement in this project can range from the synthesis of new small molecules as electrolyte additives, battery fabrication, and characterization of battery cycling performance and additive reactivity.
Our research projects use organic chemistry, polymer chemistry, and spectroscopy to solve problems in applications in electrochemical energy storage systems. We endeavor to utilize information on the basic structure and electronic properties of conjugated organic molecules in systems that have relevance to applications in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries and non-aqeous redox flow batteries. Members of the lab have opportunities to synthesize small organic compounds and/or polymers, perform spectroscopic and analytical experiments, and incorporate successful materials into batteries that are fabricated in our laboratory. More information about our research group can be found here:
Milshtein, J.D.; Kaur, A.P.; Casselman, M.D.; Kowalski, J.A.; Modekrutti, S.; Zhang, P.; Attanayake, N.H.; Elliott, C.F.; Parkin, S.R.; Risko, C.; Brushett, F.R.;* Odom, S.A.* "High Current Density, Long Duration Cycling of Soluble Organic Active Species for Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries." Energy Environ. Sci., 2016, ASAP article. DOI: 10.1039/C6EE02027E
Holubowitch, N.E.; Manek, S.E.; Landon, J.; Lippert, C.A.; Odom, S.A.; Liu, K.* "Molten Zinc Allows for Lower Temperature, Lower Cost Liquid Metal Batteries." Adv. Mater. Tech., 2016, 1. DOI: 10.1002/admt.201600035
Kaur, A.P.; Casselman, M.D.; Elliott, C.F.; Parkin, S.R.; Risko, C.; Odom, S.A.* "Overcharge Protection at Above 4 V with a Perfluorinated Phenothiazine Derivative." J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016, 4, 5410-5414. DOI: 10.1039/C5TA10375D
Holubowitch, N.E.; Manek, S.E.; Landon, J.; Lippert, C.A.; Odom, S.A.; Liu, K.* "Cathode Candidates for Zinc-Based Thermal-Electrochemical Energy Storage." Int. J. Energy Res., 2016, 40, 393-399. DOI: 10.1002/er.3385
Kaur, A.P.; Elliott, C.F.; Ergun, S.; Odom, S.A.* "Overcharge Protection of 3,7-Bis(trifluoromethyl)-N-ethylphenothiazine at High Concentrations in Lithium-Ion Batteries." J. Electrochem. Soc., 2016, 163, A1-A7. DOI: 10.1149/2.0951514jes
Kaur, A.P.; Holubowitch, N.E.; Ergun, S.E.; Elliott, C.F.; Odom, S.A.* "A Highly Soluble Organic Catholyte for Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries." Energy Tech., 2015, 3, 476-480. (Cover article) DOI: 10.1002/ente.201500020
Casselman, M.D.; Kaur, A.P.; Narayana, K.A.; Elliott, C.F.; Risko, C.;* Odom, S.A.* "The Fate of Phenothiazine-Based Redox Shuttles in Lithium-Ion Batteries." PhysChemChemPhys, 2015, 17, 6905-6912. DOI: 10.1039/C5CP00199D
Narayana, K.A.; Casselman, M.D.; Elliott, C.F.; Ergun, S.E.; Risko, C.;* Odom, S.A.* "N-Substituted Phenothiazine Derivatives: How Stability of the Neutral and Radical Cation Forms Affect Overcharge Performance in Lithium-Ion Batteries." ChemPhysChem, 2015, 6, 1179-1189. (Cover article) DOI: 10.1002/chpc.201402674
Kaur, A.P.; Ergun, S.; Elliott, C.F.; Odom, S.A.* "3,7-Bis(trifluoromethyl)-N-Ethylphenothiazine: A Redox Shuttle with Extended Overcharge Protection." J. Mater. Chem. A., 2014, 2, 18190-18193. DOI: 10.1039/C4TA04463K
Lippert, C. A.; Liu, K.; Sharma, M.; Parkin, S. R.; Remias, J. E.; Brandewie, C. M.; Odom, S. A.; Liu, K.* "Improving Carbon Capture from Power Plant Emissions with Zinc- and Cobalt-based Catalysts." Cat. Sci. & Tech., 2014, 4, 3620-3625. DOI: 10.1039/C4CY00766B
Ergun, S.; Elliottt, C. F.; Kaur, A. P.; Parkin, S. R.; Odom, S. A.* "Controlling Oxidation Potentials in Redox Shuttle Candidates for Lithium-Ion Batteries." J. Phys. Chem. C. 2014, 118, 14824-14832. DOI: 10.1021/jp503767h
Ergun, S.; Elliott, C.N.; Kaur, A.P.; Parkin, S.R.; Odom, S.A.* "Overcharge Performance of 3,7-Disubstituted N-Ethylphenothiazine Derivatives in Lithium-Ion Batteries." Chem. Commun. 2014, 50, 5339-5341. Emerging Investigators Issue, DOI: 10.1039/C3CC47503D
Odom, S.A;* Ergun, S.; Poudel, P.P.; Parkin, S.R. "A Fast, Inexpensive Method for Predicting Overcharge Performance in Lithium-Ion Batteries." Energy Environ. Sci. 2014, 7, 760-767. DOI: 10.1039/C3EE42305K
Abouimrane, A.; Odom, S.A; Tavassool, H.; Schulmerich, M.C.; Bhargava, R.; Gewirth, A.A.; Moore, J.S.,* Amine, K.* "3-Hexylthiophene as a Stabilizing Additive for High Voltage Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries." J. Electrochem. Soc. 2013, 160, A168-A277. DOI: 10.1149/2.039302jes